1. Retirees and Americans 55 years and older are responsible for over half of the nation’s wealth. Note: demographic questions will not suffice here.
? What is your current salary (annual)?
? At what age do you expect to retire?
? When did you begin saving for retirement/open 401K?
? How much do you contribute to savings/401K?
2. Current banking and PayPal practices.
? How often do you participate in online shopping? Online banking?
? What technology device do you use the most when doing online banking or shopping? (iPhone, desktop, tablet, laptop, iPad) Why?
? Where do you usually do online banking or shopping? (At home, at work, while commuting, etc.)
? How do you protect sensitive or confidential information on your technology? (Passwords, folders, etc.)
3. Future banking and online banking products for the target market/market segment (ages 55 and older).
? Do you use a Smart Phone and if so which brand (iPhone, Android, Galaxy, etc.)?
? What do you use your Smart Phone for more commonly? (calls, text, camera, apps, games)
? What other (if any) type of devices do you commonly use? (iPad, tablet, desktop, laptop)
? How open/comfortable are you to new technology?
? Do you feel comfortable trusting technology with sensitive or confidential
Running head: SPSS QUANTITATIVE ASSIGNMENT ONE
SPSS Quantitative Assignment One
September 1, 2019
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SPSS QUANTITATIVE ASSIGNMENT ONE
1. Retirees and Americans aged 55 and older are responsible for over half of the nation’s
wealth. That being the case, how many of this population use online banking?
2. How many use mobile banking?
3. How many use PayPal?
1. On a scale of 1 to 10, with 1 being the least likely and 10 being the most likely, how
likely are you to use PayPal to make a purchase from a small business?
2. On a scale of 1 to 10, with 1 being the least concerned and 10 being the most concerned,
how concerned are you with traditional banking fees when it comes to conducting a
1. On a scale of 1 to 10, with 1 being the least likely and 10 being the most likely, how
likely are you to use a bank that is strictly online that does not have any physical
2. Are there any certain areas of banking that you do not believe could be done online?
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BUSI 614 Marketing Research
This course will provide learners with a solid foundation of the theory, evaluation and application of marketing research techniques and practices. Students will apply marketing research through the use of tools and techniques to include data collection and report-generation software.
For information regarding prerequisites for this course, please refer to the Academic Course Catalog .
Many successful firms learn and grow profitably through successful marketing research efforts. Marketing research efforts are geared toward obtaining consumer/customer insights that help guide firms toward new product development, additional or improved product features/benefits, and entry or expansion into new market segments. Therefore, MBA students must have a thorough understanding and competency in marketing research’s framework, quantitative data analysis techniques that transform data into important marketing information, and the management and direction of those efforts.
Measurable Learning Outcomes
Upon successful completion of this course, the student will be able to:
A. Justify a marketing research project in relation to measurable business goals.
B. Use qualitative marketing research techniques in order to define superior customer surplus.
C. Creatively apply quantitative marketing research modeling techniques in developing products and services that outperform the competition.
D. Apply the proper application of SPSS, a statistical analysis tool.
E. Effectively communicate using the practical knowledge and language of marketing research.
F. Make business choices based on the wealth-creating potential of a specified marketing research project.
G. Evaluate all aspects of a proposed marketing research project from a Christian worldview perspective and ensure that all choices are ultimately honoring to Christ through our witness to the world.
Textbook readings and presentations
Course Requirements Checklist
After reading the Syllabus and Student Expectations, the student will complete the related checklist found in the Course Overview.
The student will complete 2 Discussions consisting of a thread and 1 reply to another classmate’s thread. The thread must be at least 500 words with a minimum of 3 citations from academic journals and 2 biblical references in current APA format. The reply must be at least 350 words. The instructor is looking for substantial, thoughtful, and critical discussions.
Integration of Faith and Learning (IFL) Assignment
The student will be asked how he/she will integrate his/her faith, coupled with marketing research, within a business world context. The student will write an essay of at least 500 words. The essay must contain at least 2 biblical references, be consistent with current APA guidelines, and submitted through SafeAssign.
Qualitative Assignments (4)
The student will analyze and respond to 4 Qualitative Assignments. The assignments are based upon the marketing research theory found in the textbook readings. Each of these assignments must be written at the graduate-level and contain the requested amount of rigor and insights. These qualitative marketing research assignments are designed to broaden the student’s knowledge about providing superior customer value.
SPSS Quantitative Assignments (7)
The student will use SPSS, a statistical analysis software tool, to complete 7 Quantitative Assignments. The data sets will be provided. Using SPSS, the student will run the appropriate statistical procedures and report the results. These quantitative marketing research assignments are designed to broaden the student’s knowledge about providing superior customer value.
MARKETING RESEARCH An Applied Orientation
New York, NY
Naresh K. Malhotra Georgia Institute of Technology
S E V E N T H E D I T I O N
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Copyright © 2019, 2010, 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. This publication is protected by copyright, and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise. For information regarding permissions, request forms, and the appropriate contacts within the Pearson Education Global Rights and Permissions department, please visit www.pearsoned.com/ permissions/.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data is on file with the Library of Congress.
Vice President, Business, Economics, and UK Courseware: Donna Battista
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ISBN 10: ! 0-13-473484-X ISBN 13: 978-0-13-473484-2
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To the memory of my father, Mr. H. N. Malhotra
and To my mother, Mrs. Satya Malhotra
To my wife Veena and children Ruth and Paul
The love, encouragement, and support of my parents, wife, and children have been exemplary.
“The greatest of these is love.” I Corinthians 13:13
“But God showed how much He loved us by having Christ die for us, even though we were sinful.”
The Holy Bible
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PART 1 Introduction and Early Phases of Marketing Research 1 Chapter 1 Introduction to Marketing Research 2 Chapter 2 Defining the Marketing Research Problem and Developing
an Approach 31
PART 2 Research Design Formulation 63 Chapter 3 Research Design 64 Chapter 4 Exploratory Research Design: Secondary and Syndicated Data 92 Chapter 5 Exploratory Research Design: Qualitative Research 124 Chapter 6 Descriptive Research Design: Survey and Observation 164 Chapter 7 Causal Research Design: Experimentation 208 Chapter 8 Measurement and Scaling: Fundamentals and Comparative
Scaling 240 Chapter 9 Measurement and Scaling: Noncomparative Scaling Techniques 262 Chapter 10 Questionnaire and Form Design 290 Chapter 11 Sampling: Design and Procedures 327 Chapter 12 Sampling: Final and Initial Sample Size Determination 361
PART 3 Data Collection, Preparation, Analysis, and Reporting 389 Chapter 13 Fieldwork 390 Chapter 14 Data Preparation 407 Chapter 15 Frequency Distribution, Cross-Tabulation, and Hypothesis Testing 437 Chapter 16 Analysis of Variance and Covariance 482 Chapter 17 Correlation and Regression 511 Chapter 18 Discriminant and Logit Analysis 548 Chapter 19 Factor Analysis 580 Chapter 20 Cluster Analysis 606 Chapter 21 Multidimensional Scaling and Conjoint Analysis 632 Chapter 22 Structural Equation Modeling and Path Analysis 664 Chapter 23 Report Preparation and Presentation 699
CASES Running Case with Real Data Case 1.1 HP: Using Marketing Research to Gain a Competitive Edge 726
Comprehensive Critical Thinking Cases Case 2.1 Baskin-Robbins: Can It Bask in the Good ‘Ole Days? 731 Case 2.2 Kid Stuff? Determining the Best Positioning Strategy for Akron
Children’s Hospital 734
B R I E F C O N T E N T S
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vi BRIEF CONTENTS
Data Analysis Cases with Real Data Case 3.1 AT&T Wireless: Ma Bell Becomes Ma Again 736 Case 3.2 IBM: A Top Provider of Computer Hardware, Software,
and Services 740 Case 3.3 Kimberly-Clark: Competing Through Innovation 748
Comprehensive Cases with Real Data Case 4.1 JPMorgan Chase: Chasing Growth Through Mergers and
Acquisitions 755 Case 4.2 Wendy’s: History and Life After Dave Thomas 761
Comprehensive Harvard Business School Cases Case 5.1 The Harvard Graduate Student Housing Survey (9-505-059) 767 Case 5.2 BizRate.Com (9-501-024) 767 Case 5.3 Cola Wars Continue: Coke and Pepsi in the Twenty-First Century
(9-702-442) 767 Case 5.4 TiVo in 2002 (9-502-062) 767 Case 5.5 Compaq Computer: Intel Inside? (9-599-061) 767 Case 5.6 The New Beetle (9-501-023) 767
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C O N T E N T S
Foreword xix Preface xxi Acknowledgments xxiv About the Author xxv Commendation xxvi
1 Introduction to Marketing Research 2 Objectives 2 Overview 3 Definition of Marketing Research 5 A Classification of Marketing Research 6 The Marketing Research Process 8
Step 1: Problem Definition 8 Step 2: Development of an Approach to the
Problem 8 Step 3: Research Design Formulation 9 Step 4: Fieldwork or Data Collection 9 Step 5: Data Preparation and Analysis 9 Step 6: Report Preparation and Presentation 9
The Role of Marketing Research in Marketing Decision Making 10
Marketing Research and Competitive Intelligence 12
The Decision to Conduct Marketing Research 12
The Marketing Research Industry 13 Selecting a Research Supplier 15 Employability in Marketing Research 16 The Department Store Patronage Project 18 International Marketing Research 18 Marketing Research and Social Media 20 Mobile Marketing Research 21 Ethics in Marketing Research 22 SPSS Windows and SAS Enterprise Guide 24 HP Running Case 24 • Summary 25 Key Terms and Concepts 25 • Suggested Cases, HBS Cases, and Video Cases 25 Live Research: Conducting a Marketing Research Project 26 • Acronyms 26 Exercises 26 • Internet and Computer Exercises 27 • Activities 27
Video Case 1.1 Burke: Learning and Growing Through Marketing Research 28
2 Defining the Marketing Research Problem and Developing an Approach 31 Objectives 31 Overview 32 Importance of Defining the Problem 33 The Process of Defining the Problem and
Developing an Approach 34 Tasks Involved 34
Discussions with Decision Makers 34 Interviews with Industry Experts 37 Secondary Data Analysis 38 Qualitative Research 39
Environmental Context of the Problem 40 Past Information and Forecasts 40 Resources and Constraints 41 Objectives 42 Buyer Behavior 42 Legal Environment 43 Economic Environment 43 Marketing and Technological Skills 43
Management Decision Problem and Marketing Research Problem 44
Defining the Marketing Research Problem 45 Components of the Approach 47
Objective/Theoretical Framework 47 Analytical Model 48 Research Questions 49 Hypotheses 50 Specification of Information Needed 52
International Marketing Research 53 Marketing Research and Social Media 54
Approach to the Problem 55
Mobile Marketing Research 56 Ethics in Marketing Research 56 HP Running Case 57 • Summary 57 Key Terms and Concepts 58 • Suggested Cases, HBS Cases, and Video Cases 59 Live Research: Conducting a Marketing Research Project 59 • Acronyms 59 Exercises 59 • Internet and Computer Exercises 60 • Activities 60
Video Case 2.1 Accenture: The Accent Is in the Name 61
PART 1 Introduction and Early Phases of Marketing Research 1
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3 Research Design 64 Objectives 64 Overview 65 Research Design: Definition 66 Research Design: Classification 66 Exploratory Research 68 Descriptive Research 70
Cross-Sectional Designs 71 Longitudinal Designs 72 Relative Advantages and Disadvantages of
Longitudinal and Cross-Sectional Designs 73
Causal Research 75 Relationships Among Exploratory, Descriptive,
and Causal Research 77 Potential Sources of Error 78
Random Sampling Error 78 Nonsampling Error 78
Budgeting and Scheduling the Project 81 Marketing Research Proposal 81 International Marketing Research 82 Marketing Research and Social Media 83 Mobile Marketing Research 85 Ethics in Marketing Research 85 HP Running Case 86 • Summary 86 Key Terms and Concepts 87 • Suggested Cases, HBS Cases and Video Cases 87 Live Research: Conducting a Marketing Research Project 87 • Acronyms 88 • Exercises 88 • Internet and Computer Exercises 88 • Activities 88
Video Case 3.1 National Football League: The King of Professional Sports 90
4 Exploratory Research Design: Secondary and Syndicated Data 92 Objectives 92 Overview 93 Primary Versus Secondary Data 94 Advantages and Uses of Secondary Data 95 Disadvantages of Secondary Data 95 Criteria for Evaluating Secondary Data 95
Specifications: Methodology Used to Collect the Data 96
Error: Accuracy of the Data 97 Currency: When the Data Were Collected 97 Objective: The Purpose for Which the Data Were
Collected 97 Nature: The Content of the Data 97 Dependability: How Dependable Are the
Classification of Secondary Data 99 Internal Secondary Data 100
Customer Databases 100 Data Warehouse and Data Mining 100 CRM and Database Marketing 101
External Secondary Data 102 Business/Nongovernment Data 102 Government Sources 102
Syndicated Sources of Secondary Data 104 Syndicated Data from Households 105
Surveys 105 Purchase and Media Panels 108 Electronic Scanner Services 109
Syndicated Data from Institutions 111 Retailer and Wholesaler Audits 111 Industry Services 112
Combining Information from Different Sources: Single-Source Data 113
Big Data 114 International Marketing Research 114 Marketing Research and Social Media 116 Mobile Marketing Research 117 Ethics in Marketing Research 118 HP Running Case 118 • Summary 119 Key Terms and Concepts 119 • Suggested Cases, HBS Cases, and Video Cases 119 Live Research: Conducting a Marketing Research Project 120 • Acronyms 120 Exercises 120 • Internet and Computer Exercises 121 • Activities 121
Video Case 4.1 The Mayo Clinic: Staying Healthy with Marketing Research 122
5 Exploratory Research Design: Qualitative Research 124 Objectives 124 Overview 125 Primary Data: Qualitative Versus Quantitative
Research 126 Rationale for Using Qualitative Research 128 A Classification of Qualitative Research
Procedures 129 Focus Group Interviews 129
Characteristics 130 Planning and Conducting Focus Groups 131 Other Variations in Focus Groups 135 Advantages of Focus Groups 136 Disadvantages of Focus Groups 137 Applications of Focus Groups 137 Online Focus Group Interviews 138 Advantages of Online Focus Groups 138
PART 2 Research Design Formulation 63
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Disadvantages of Online Focus Groups 138 Uses of Online Focus Groups 139
Depth Interviews 140 Characteristics 140 Techniques 141 Advantages and Disadvantages of Depth
Interviews 142 Applications of Depth Interviews 143
Projective Techniques 144 Association Techniques 144 Completion Techniques 145 Construction Techniques 147 Expressive Techniques 148 Advantages and Disadvantages of Projective
Techniques 149 Applications of Projective Techniques 149
Analysis of Qualitative Data 151 Software Packages 152
International Marketing Research 153 Marketing Research and Social Media 153
Focus Groups 154 Depth Interviews 155 Projective Techniques 155 Limitations 155
Mobile Marketing Research 156 Ethics in Marketing Research 157 HP Running Case 158 • Summary 158 Key Terms and Concepts 158 • Suggested Cases, HBS Cases, and Video Cases 159 Live Research: Conducting a Marketing Research Project 159 • Acronyms 159 Exercises 160 • Internet and Computer Exercises 160 • Activities 161
Video Case 5.1 Nike: Associating Athletes, Performance, and the Brand 162
6 Descriptive Research Design: Survey and Observation 164 Objectives 164 Overview 165 Survey Methods 167 Survey Methods Classified by Mode of
Administration 168 Telephone Methods 168
Traditional Telephone Interviews 168 Computer-Assisted Telephone
Interviewing (CATI) 168
Personal Methods 170 Personal In-Home Interviews 170 Mall-Intercept Personal Interviews 170 Computer-Assisted Personal Interviewing
Mail Methods 172 Mail Interviews 172 Mail Panels 174
Electronic Methods 174 Email Interviews 174 Internet Interviews 174
A Comparative Evaluation of Survey Methods 176 Task Factors 178 Situational Factors 181 Respondent Factors 182
Some Other Survey Methods 184 Selection of Survey Methods 184 Observation Methods 185
Structured Versus Unstructured Observation 185 Disguised Versus Undisguised Observation 186 Natural Versus Contrived Observation 186
Observation Methods Classified by Mode of Administration 186 Personal Observation 186 Mechanical Observation 187 Audit 189 Content Analysis 189 Trace Analysis 191
A Comparative Evaluation of Observation Methods 192
A Comparison of Survey and Observation Methods 193 Relative Advantages of Observation 193 Relative Disadvantages of Observation 193
Ethnographic Research 194 Other Methods 195 International Marketing Research 195
Selection of Survey Methods 196
Marketing Research and Social Media 197 Surveys 197 Observation 199
Mobile Marketing Research 200 MMR and Survey Research 200 MMR and Observation Research 201
Ethics in Marketing Research 202 HP Running Case 203 • Summary 203 Key Terms and Concepts 203 • Suggested Cases, HBS Cases, and Video Cases 204 Live Research: Conducting a Marketing Research Project 204 • Acronyms 204 Exercises 205 • Internet and Computer Exercises 205 • Activities 205
Video Case 6.1 Starbucks: Staying Local While Going Global Through Marketing Research 206
7 Causal Research Design: Experimentation 208 Objectives 208 Overview 209 Concept of Causality 210
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Conditions for Causality 210 Concomitant Variation 211 Time Order of Occurrence of Variables 212 Absence of Other Possible Causal Factors 212 Role of Evidence 212
Definitions and Concepts 213 Definition of Symbols 214 Validity in Experimentation 214
Internal Validity 215 External Validity 215
Extraneous Variables 215 History 215 Maturation 216 Testing Effects 216 Instrumentation 216 Statistical Regression 216 Selection Bias 217 Mortality 217
Controlling Extraneous Variables 217 Randomization 217 Matching 217 Statistical Control 218 Design Control 218
A Classification of Experimental Designs 218 Preexperimental Designs 219
One-Shot Case Study 219 One-Group Pretest-Posttest Design 220 Static Group Design 220
True Experimental Designs 221 Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design 221 Posttest-Only Control Group Design 221
Quasi-Experimental Designs 223 Time Series Design 223 Multiple Time Series Design 223
Statistical Designs 224 Randomized Block Design 224 Latin Square Design 226 Factorial Design 227
Laboratory Versus Field Experiments 228 Experimental Versus Nonexperimental
Designs 229 Limitations of Experimentation 230
Time 230 Cost 230 Administration 230
Application: Test Marketing 230 International Marketing Research 230 Marketing Research and Social Media 232 Mobile Marketing Research 233 Ethics in Marketing Research 233 HP Running Case 234 • Summary 234 Key Terms and Concepts 235 • Suggested Cases, HBS Cases, and Video Cases 235
Live Research: Conducting a Marketing Research Project 236 • Acronyms 236 Exercises 236 • Internet and Computer Exercises 237 • Activities 237
Video Case 7.1 Aflac: Marketing Research Quacks Like a Duck 238
8 Measurement and Scaling: Fundamentals and Comparative Scaling 240 Objectives 240 Overview 241 Measurement and Scaling 242 Scale Characteristics and Levels of
Measurement 242 Description 242 Order 242 Distance 243 Origin 243
Primary Scales of Measurement 243 Nominal Scale 243 Ordinal Scale 245 Interval Scale 246 Ratio Scale 247
A Comparison of Scaling Techniques 248 Comparative Scaling Techniques 249
Paired Comparison Scaling 249 Rank Order Scaling 251 Constant Sum Scaling 252 Q-Sort and Other Procedures 253
International Marketing Research 254 Marketing Research and Social Media 255 Mobile Marketing Research 255 Ethics in Marketing Research 256 HP Running Case 257 • Summary 257 Key Terms and Concepts 257 • Suggested Cases, HBS Cases, and Video Cases 258 Live Research: Conducting a Marketing Research Project 258 • Acronyms 258 Exercises 259 • Internet and Computer Exercises 259 • Activities 259
Video Case 8.1 Procter & Gamble: Using Marketing Research to Build Brands 260
9 Measurement and Scaling: Noncomparative Scaling Techniques 262 Objectives 262 Overview 263 Noncomparative Scaling Techniques 264 Continuous Rating Scale 264 Itemized Rating Scales 266
Likert Scale 266 Semantic Differential Scale 268 Stapel Scale 269
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Noncomparative Itemized Rating Scale Decisions 270 Number of Scale Categories 270 Balanced Versus Unbalanced Scales 270 Odd or Even Number of Categories 271 Forced Versus Nonforced Scales 271 Nature and Degree of Verbal Description 271 Physical Form or Configuration 271
Multi-Item Scales 274 Scale Evaluation 275
Measurement Accuracy 275 Reliability 276 Validity 278 Relationship Between Reliability and
Validity 279 Generalizability 279
Choosing a Scaling Technique 280 Mathematically Derived Scales 280 International Marketing Research 280 Marketing Research and Social Media 281 Mobile Marketing Research 282 Ethics in Marketing Research 283 HP Running Case 284 • Summary 284 Key Terms and Concepts 285 • Suggested Cases, HBS Cases, and Video Cases 285 Live Research: Conducting a Marketing Research Project 285 • Acronyms 286 Exercises 286 • Internet and Computer Exercises 286 • Activities 287
Video Case 9.1 eGO: Reinventing Wheels 288
10 Questionnaire and Form Design 290Objectives 290 Overview 291 Questionnaires and Observation Forms 292
Questionnaire Definition 293 Objectives of a Questionnaire 293
Questionnaire Design Process 293 Specify the Information Needed 294 Type of Interviewing Method 295 Individual Question Content 296
Is the Question Necessary? 296 Are Several Questions Needed Instead of
Overcoming Inability to Answer 297 Is the Respondent Informed? 297 Can the Respondent Remember? 298 Can the Respondent Articulate? 299
Overcoming Unwillingness to Answer 299 Effort Required of the Respondents 299 Context 299 Legitimate Purpose 299
Sensitive Information 300 Increasing the Willingness of
Choosing Question Structure 301 Unstructured Questions 301 Structured Questions 302
Choosing Question Wording 304 Define the Issue 304 Use Ordinary Words 304 Use Unambiguous Words 305 Avoid Leading or Biasing Questions 305 Avoid Implicit Alternatives 306 Avoid Implicit Assumptions 306 Avoid Generalizations and Estimates 306 Dual Statements: Positive and Negative 307
Determining the Order of Questions 307 Opening Questions 307 Type of Information 308 Difficult Questions 308 Effect on Subsequent Questions 308 Logical Order 309
Form and Layout 310 Reproduction of the Questionnaire 311 Pretesting 312 Computer and Internet Questionnaire
Construction 314 Observational Forms 315 International Marketing Research 316 Marketing Research and Social Media 318 Mobile Marketing Research 318
MMR and Questionnaire Design 318
Ethics in Marketing Research 319 HP Running Case 320 • Summary 320 Key Terms and Concepts 321 • Suggested Cases, HBS Cases, and Video Cases 321 Live Research: Conducting a Marketing Research Project 322 • Acronyms 322 Exercises 322 • Internet and Computer Exercises 323 • Activities 324
Video Case 10.1 Dunkin’ Donuts: Dunking the Competition 325
11 Sampling: Design and Procedures 327 Objectives 327 Overview 328 Sample or Census 329 The Sampling Design Process 331
Define the Target Population 331 Determine the Sampling Frame 332 Select a Sampling Technique 332 Determine the Sample Size 333 Execute the Sampling Process 334
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A Classification of Sampling Techniques 335 Nonprobability Sampling Techniques 336
Convenience Sampling 337 Judgmental Sampling 337 Quota Sampling 338 Snowball Sampling 339
Probability Sampling Techniques 340 Simple Random Sampling 341 Systematic Sampling 342 Stratified Sampling 343 Cluster Sampling 345 Other Probability Sampling Techniques 347
Choosing Nonprobability Versus Probability Sampling 349
Uses of Nonprobability and Probability Sampling 350
Internet Sampling 350 Issues in Online Sampling 350 Online Sampling Techniques 351
International Marketing Research 352 Marketing Research and Social Media 353 Mobile Marketing Research 354 Ethics in Marketing Research 355 HP Running Case 355 • Summary 356 Key Terms and Concepts 356 • Suggested Cases, HBS Cases, and Video Cases 356 Live Research: Conducting a Marketing Research Project 357 • Acronyms 357 Exercises 357 • Internet and Computer Exercises 358 • Activities 358
Video Case 11.1 Nivea: Marketing Research Leads to Consistency in Marketing 359
12 Sampling: Final and Initial Sample Size Determination 361 Objectives 361 Overview 362 Definitions and Symbols 363 The Sampling Distribution 364 Statistical Approach to Determining Sample
Size 365 The Confidence Interval Approach 366
Sample Size Determination: Means 367 Sample Size Determination: Proportions 369
Multiple Characteristics and Parameters 372 Other Probability Sampling Techniques 373 Adjusting the Statistically Determined Sample
Size 373 Calculation of Response Rates 374 Nonresponse Issues in Sampling 375
Improving the Response Rates 375 Adjusting for Nonresponse 378
International Marketing Research 380 Marketing Research and Social Media 381 Mobile Marketing Research 381 Ethics in Marketing Research 382 HP Running Case 382 • Summary 383 Key Terms and Concepts 383 • Suggested Cases, HBS Cases, and Video Cases 383 Live Research: Conducting a Marketing Research Project 384 • Acronym 384 Exercises 384 • Internet and Computer Exercises 385 • Activities 385 Appendix 12A 385
Video Case 12.1 Subaru: “Mr. Survey” Monitors Customer Satisfaction 387
PART 3 Data Collection, Preparation, Analysis, and Reporting 389
13 Fieldwork 390Objectives 390 Overview 391 The Natu
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