Subject: Business Network Systems Management – 03478 – Sp22
— Write small summary 10-15 lines of each classmate research paper. No reference or other details.
— There are total 12 classmate research paper.
— it is due by tomorrow 05/06/2022.
Running head: STANDARDIZATION AND SMALL BATCHES 2
STANDARDIZATION AND SMALL BATCHES 2
The Impact of Standardization and Small Batches on Performance and Output
BIT 575 – Final Paper
Dr. Andrew Aken
The Impact of Standardization and Small Batches on Performance and Output
Throughout history, humankind has continuously tried to create things and innovate with what they had in order to make their lives easier. The world is constantly evolving, and we have had exponential increases in technological advancements. To continue this innovation and improvement, incorporating the concept of standardization and the process of small batches is extremely important. In order to allow ease, less waste, less mistakes, easy maintenance, and faster results, we must allow newer and better processes to replace our current ones. This paper will delve into what exactly standardization and small batches do to tasks and how they impact the performance and output of projects, professional or academic as mentioned in the Appendix.
Standardization is the process of ensuring that the different machines or systems one would use to complete a task are similar in build, concept, and function (Limoncelli et al., 2017). What standardization does is ensure that commonly performed tasks are written up as a process and done the exact same way every time, regardless of who is doing them. These standard guidelines can make the lives of staff much easier and avoid confusion and chaos (Brandall, 2018). Common tasks could include dealing with customer complaints, onboarding new hires, sending out a supply request, certificate renewal and other such often repeated work. The IT industry has constantly made use of standardization, and which has allowed increased efficiencies in production and productivity (Lee et al., 2019).
Any work done in an organization that has been done before should be written down, coded, and recorded so that there are rules and guidelines in place. This ensures that no matter who takes on what task, they are able to perform is exactly as another (Brandall, 2018). It does not even have to be IT or systems administration based. Standardization can be used in any situation where it fits. For example, having a standard at home for doing laundry can help. Light colored clothing and dark colored clothing are washed separately. That is a standard. Whether mom, dad, brother, or sister decides to do laundry, they all could be told this standard that they must maintain. Similarly, in college, professors and instructors could have their standards that are set. If the instructions clearly state that you must submit a one-page, double spaced paper and the instructor will only count content as a part of the one-page, students should understand that in order to get a good grade, they need to meet that standard.
Standardization can decrease the amount of time employees take during the trial-and-error phase (Brandall, 2018). A set process that is laid out for everyone means that employees do not need to figure out the best or fastest way to do a certain task. Standards are usually set based on the best way to do a task so quality control becomes less of an issue as well (Brandall, 2018). Basically, standardization makes everyone’s life easier. It helps employees do their jobs correctly with minimal mistakes, allows easy maintenance, decreases waste, and encourages uniformity. Of course, when the organization is presented with an issue or problem that it has not had experience with before, standardization cannot work, and the trial-and-error process must take place. Standardization of IT processes have been quite common for a while and different data models and software processes have been created for organizations to ease into standardization (Laakso & Kiviniemi, 2012).
Impact of Standardization on Performance and Output
One of the main benefits standardizations has is that it clears up any confusion and clearly lays out how a process should be performed (Brandall, 2018). There is no need for employees to test and figure out the best way to do something because a standard has been created. This increases performance and output because less time and less waste occur while performing commonly occurring tasks.
Along with confusion comes the risk of losing quality (Brandall, 2018). When employees do not know the correct instructions or processes to use, they try different things. Some of these things work while others do not. The ones that do not work, negatively impact quality and produce even more issues down the road.
Once a process is standardized and the process is understood, the organization can go forward and standardize other processes. This creates a benefit to the organization in terms of time and resources. When an organization is not busy trying to fix mistakes or avoid quality issues, it can focus on new problems and innovation (Brandall, 2018). This in turn can improve employee morale which boosts productivity and output.
When you standardize processes and employees know what they are doing, they are happier (Brandall, 2018). Often ambiguous tasks or vague direction can result in employees being frustrated and not knowing what to do. Standardization helps avoid this frustration and negative association with tasks at one’s job.
Productivity and output can generally be shown in how customers are handled. If an organization is productive, it can usually be seen in how they handle customer complaints, requests, and questions. Standardization allows organizations to understand how best common complaints can be handled and it means that everyone is treated and informed correctly and uniformly (Brandall, 2018). Being able to understand and rectify customer complaints is one of the main ways organizations can prove their commitment to their customers. Standard procedures, canned replies, and written out guidelines can help any employee ensure that customers are taken care of.
Small batches are a concept defined as doing work in smaller chunks in order to avoid mistakes, waste, and time loss (Limoncelli et al., 2017). For a software development team this may mean writing small amounts of code and publishing it rather than spending copious amounts of time on writing a very lengthy and complicated full software (Kenig, 2020). Working in small batches can help in performance, morale, work time, mistake reduction, and easy changes. The small batches concept can be described as cutting up your work into smaller chunks. If you choose to do a big project, then you must plan, conceptualize, and organize your project which takes time and resources. Then you will have to sit down and write out all the code and procedures for this big project which could take ages. Then in the testing phase, figuring out glitches or bugs and which lines of code they are attributed to take even longer (Kenig, 2020). Often this process results in going over budget and over time. Using small batches, however, allows you to create a smaller, more succinct programs, test any mistakes you have, easily detect that code that you need to change, and publish it within a much shorter amount of time. This also allows one to easily make changes and pivot when needed. Manufacturing companies make small batch processing machinery which have been shown to improve both productivity and output (Schuh et al., 2019).
Impact of Small Batches on Performance and Output
When applying small batches to projects, it can significantly improve performance and output. Testing changes or identifying mistakes/bugs in larger projects takes a lot of time and effort (Kenig, 2020). However, working in small batches allow quicker tests, changes, and identifying mistakes which significantly improve the quality and speed of getting products out the door. Running tests becomes easier on smaller batches and can be handled better (Kenig, 2020). Similarly, making changes to a large project can prove to be extremely time consuming and frustrating. Making changes to smaller batches is much less arduous.
Increased amounts of output can also come from small batches. Customers appreciate something rather than nothing. So, producing and publishing systems for customers to use immediately rather than waiting for a large system and eventually realizing many glitches and bugs is much more appreciated (Kenig, 2020). Working in smaller batches allows you to produce quicker and more quality content for your customers to use.
Working in smaller batches can also be useful if teams are smaller (Kenig, 2020). Smaller teams can comfortably produce small batches of work and still maintain quality and standards. This allows the organization to remit less resources to one project. Lean startup which encourages immediate feedback is also a benefit of small batches as it allows immediate testing and feedback (Kenig, 2020).
Initially, encouraging the adoption of standardization might be easier than small batches. Standardization can easily be implemented by ensuring that certain tasks are performed by the most experienced workers and then those same workers can be asked to detail their process, so it is recorded and used by others. Small batches, however, can be a significant change in habit. Change intervention is a great way to encourage this adoption. First, employees can go through the unfreezing stage where the need to change is explained and taught. Then, change intervention can occur and small batches can be implemented. Finally, the refreezing stage can occur, and employees can be monitored to ensure small batches is being used effectively.
A resistance to change may occur at organizations. Employees may assume that small batches mean more work in the long run. They may be hesitant to take on the responsibility of ensuring that all their work is mistake free and low waste. While that is not true and in the long run it would be beneficial and better for morale, these issues may arise. Additionally, experienced workers may feel pressured to disclose the best way to do tasks which in turn may give them the idea of internal competition. While competition is important for innovation, workers should not feel that they need to hide or suppress their skills. As a matter of fact, applying standardization will free those workers up as they will not have to correct mistakes or deal with waste as much. It allows the organization to explore many different new ideas and allows workers to push themselves creatively.
When it comes to standardization, a form of job security may open up experienced workers to sharing their knowledge and expertise. Allowing them their time and giving them the comfort they need to share valuable information with others will ease the process. Educating them on the benefits of spending less time editing, fixing, and correcting processes will be beneficial. Managers can explain that with time freed up by employing standardization, workers can focus on other endeavors and push their creativity to innovate and take the company further. A certain comradery and connection to the organization is important as well. Giving applicable rewards to employees who help with the standardization process can give them incentive and motivation but also help them realize that they are a valuable part of the company, and their input/expertise is acknowledged and appreciated.
Examples of small batches successfully being used in companies can help change the minds of those who may be resistant to change. Explaining the cause and effect of small batches and how they will not be more work and tougher deadlines but rather ease the process of producing content would also be a big help. Knowledge is power and in imparting knowledge, employees can gain a sense of what small batches are about and fear the change it brings less.
Incorporating any new process or procedure will have growing pains in the beginning. Employees and workers will have a hard time changing the way they do their work, and it will be a lot of trial and error. However, both standardization and small batches will eventually become habit and employees will be able to see the time and resource benefits it can bring. Case studies are also a great way to explain the potential benefits of these processes. Additionally, bringing in professionals that understand how to jumpstart the standardization process or how to incorporate small batches is a valuable alternative. Sometimes managers are not equipped with the knowledge to enact change or the knowledge of the benefits of a certain system. A professional can help bring credibility and maximization to whatever new process you want to implement.
In conclusion, small batches and standardization can do wonders for an organization’s productivity and output. Incorporating small batches can reduce the work, time, resources, effort, testing time, and mistakes when producing content. Small batches can allow developers to push out content and software to customers quicker with easier changes and fixes as opposed to customers having to wait long periods of time before even having access to software. Standardization can help increase uniformity, reduce mistakes, increase morale, and give an organization time to focus on other endeavors. Employing the skills and expertise of workers who know the best method to perform a task and asking them to record it is very important. Any other employee in the future doing the same job can use that information as a guideline and ensure uniformity between work.
As a whole, both of these concepts can be applied with relative ease as long as correct education and information is given to employees. It is important to understand and work with employees who might feel uncomfortable with certain areas of change. Also, some problems may arise in the beginning when implementing small batches and standardization, but these are simply growing pains and will benefit the organization as a whole in the long run. The investment into these concepts is worth any risk that comes with it.
Brandall, B. (2018). Why Process Standardization Improves Quality, Productivity, and Morale. Process.st. https://www.process.st/process-standardization/
Kenig, E. (2020). Working in small batches is the one single thing you should care about. Yotpo Engineering. https://medium.com/yotpoengineering/working-in-small-batches-is-the-one-single-thing-you-should-care-about-b1f49cdb5e7
Lee, B. N., Pei, E., & Um, J. (2019). An overview of information technology standardization activities related to additive manufacturing. Progress in Additive Manufacturing, 4(3). https://doi.org/10.1007/s40964-019-00087-5
Limoncelli, T. A., Hogan, C. J., & Chalup, S. R. (2017). The Practice of System and Network Administration (3rd ed.). Lumeta Corporation.
Schuh, G., Kelzenberg, C., Wiese, J., & Ochel T. (2019). Data Structure of the Digital Shadow for Systematic Knowledge Management Systems in Single and Small Batch Production. Procedia CIRP, 84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procir.2019.04.210
Initial Topic Proposal
The Impact of Standardization and Small Batches on Performance and Output
This research paper will mention the different impacts that standardization and the incorporation of small batches has on organizational performance and output. Standardization or using generic machines have been known to increase efficiency in situations where a failure, outage, or addition needs to take place. Similarly, small batches are shown to reduce the amount of waste, mistakes, and time it takes for a task to be completed. I will be delving into these topics by using information I find by different authors and real-life examples.
Topic is sufficiently narrow in scope. Topic is on an appropriate subject.
How Can a Company’s Reputation Be Impacted by a Security/Data Breach?
Minot State University
Dr. Andrew Aken
May 1st, 2022
Running Head: IMPACT OF DATA BREACH 1
IMPACT OF DATA BREACH 2
How Can a Company’s Reputation Be Impacted by a Security/Data Breach?
Security breaches are incidents that involve unauthorized access to a company’s records or data by intruders (What is a security breach?, 2021). A security breach means the intruders have gotten through the firewall whereas a data breach is when the intruders have not only gotten through the system but stolen the information they wanted to steal (What is a security breach?, 2021). The information that is stolen can be bank details or it can be information that can be sold for identity theft (What is a security breach?, 2021). A data breach is anything that exposes confidential information to an unauthorized user (How data breaches happen, 2021). A breach can not only be towards companies but towards individuals as well. For individuals, it happens when proper controls or stronger passwords are not in play. This means that the individuals have not done much to protect themselves. This paper dives into how companies are affected by breaches and what customers go through as well as how companies can restore their reputation as mentioned in the Appendix.
Causes of Data/Security Breaches
Data breaches are not always caused by outside sources but also by people on the inside. Data breaches can occur through:
· An Accidental Insider: This is when coworker A gives their login information to coworker B to use without realizing that coworker B may not have the authorization to see anything else but given access, they saw it and now that data is considered breached (How data breaches happen, 2021).
· Malicious insider: This is when someone intentionally and maliciously uses the information, they have access to. The first one is unintentional that someone got access when they shouldn't have. This breach is when someone either intends to access or abuses the access they already have to take the information they want (How data breaches happen, 2021).
· Lost or stolen devices: The breach occurs when a laptop, computer, or hard drive either goes missing or is stolen (How data breaches happen, 2021).
· Malicious Outside criminals: This is when hackers try to gain access by attacking someone's or a company's device to gain control over their information (How data breaches happen, 2021).
Types of Security Breaches
There are different kinds of security breaches:
· Phishing: These attacks are designed to fool you by portraying to be organizations or causes you trust. Hackers send you an email using those trusted organizations for you to just click on it and give them access to your computer and all the information with it (Kaspersky2).
· Brute force attacks: Hackers try to force their way into an individual or company's system by trying to crack their passwords (How data breaches happen, 2021). This takes time however if your password is not strong then it would not take long.
· Malware: These attacks occur when proper security controls are not put in place. This allows hackers to ease in undetected and steal whatever they want without getting caught and it is too late by the time you realize there was a breach (How data breaches happen, 2021). I think it is too late as soon as the breach occurs.
Impact on Customers
Schaffer (2021) talks about how the LinkedIn breach affected a lot of users but there was significantly nothing that users could do about it. She also mentions that since so many people went through the same thing it helped lower the anxiety of everyone. Why? because first there is nothing you can do when a breach occurs and your information is taken through social media, the only thing to be done is to panic however that panic can be less when you know other people are going through the same thing. For example, when you don't know there was an exam in school, and you walk in to find out about it, and you look at your friend who is just as confused. Knowing you are not alone helps you keep calm.
Companies that have been breached; their consumers do live in constant fear that they will be a victim of identity fraud. These fears make it harder for people to put in their information as they trust companies less now. People also believe that this is happening because companies are not doing their job by keeping their information safe (Schaffer, 2021).
Post-Breach Impact on Company
Sometimes negative attention can be beneficial. Why? because for a smaller business, any kind of press or attention is good whereas for a larger business even the smallest inconvenience can result in a downfall (Makridis, 2021). When companies encounter a data or security breach, they are likely going to have a decline in the amount of profit they are going to receive (Makridis, 2021). This is because customers will be unwilling to support a company that has had a security breach. As I mentioned earlier, because smaller businesses receive attention, some businesses are unlikely to invest in proper cybersecurity tools to ensure no breaches (Makridis, 2021).
People end up finding out when a company has been breached. The word is out and that means the company’s reputation is not at the same level it once was. This drops the stock prices for publicly traded companies by five percent (The Impact of Data Breaches on Reputation & Share Value, 2017). However, if companies were to self-report themselves and respond immediately to try the fix the damage then they are likely to have their stock value back up in about a week (The Impact of Data Breaches on Reputation & Share Value, 2017). This kind of response to a data breach shows consumers that companies are prepared and that they care about their consumers to have the best possible recovery process at hand. According to (Makridis, 2021) smaller companies get the press by having a breach, this does not mean that it is good because for smaller companies the decline lasts about 90 days since they don’t have a proper security system in place (The Impact of Data Breaches on Reputation & Share Value, 2017).
The more money that is allocated to safeguarding the information of consumers, the less likely you are to be breached and the more likely that your consumers will stay loyal and trust to do business with you (The Impact of Data Breaches on Reputation & Share Value, 2017).
We all believe what we hear most of the time without doing the necessary research to ensure if our claims are true or not. Consumers believe that health care organizations will keep their information more protected than banks (The Impact of Data Breaches on Reputation & Share Value, 2017). However, healthcare organizations account for 34 percent of data breaches while financial organizations account for 4.8 percent (The Impact of Data Breaches on Reputation & Share Value, 2017). That is because financial organizations allocate costs towards cybersecurity to protect their customers while healthcare organizations do not (The Impact of Data Breaches on Reputation & Share Value, 2017).
Companies face reputable damage, financial consequences, and customer loss when a breach occurs (The Impact of Data Breaches on Reputation & Share Value, 2017). Employees also become less productive after a breach when they see that their company is not held to a higher standard or does not allocate costs towards ensuring the company’s safety (The Impact of Data Breaches on Reputation & Share Value, 2017). I know employees get unproductive because there was a breach at one of the companies my coworkers used to work for, and it showed that employees did not want to continue working and switched jobs. They are now hiring a lot of people for that company. This shows that even when employees do not want to work then why would customers trust that business to provide the best possible service when they sign up.
Prevention of Reputational Damage
According to Taylor (2020), the way companies can prevent reputational damage depends on how they respond to a breach. If their response time is quick and they consult experts immediately to ensure the best possible strategy shows consumers that the company is working towards making better protection and taking responsibility for their actions.
The best way to prevent reputational damage is to have the best offensive strategy ready for an attack (Taylor, 2021). The more prepared one is for a breach the less likely they are to be breached. Companies can invest in software that controls and monitors any suspicious activity (Taylor, 2021). They can also implement Zero Trust Network Architecture which means the company trusts no one to have unlimited access for a long period. This software gives access once the individual is approved and only for the given amount of time till the work is done.
As soon as a company finds out they have been breached, they should alert their employees and customers so they can prepare or protect themselves (Sheil, 2021). Hiding this information will only make it worse because if customers find out that their information was hacked, they will be upset but on top of that, the company lied about it? that is not a good look for any organization. The next thing a company should do is figure out what information was breached and what the hackers got access to (Sheil, 2021). Once you find out what has happened and fixed it then it is time to update security protocols to ensure the same thing never happens again.
A brand's reputation is what makes consumers either fall in love with it or hate it. This all depends on how the company, product, or service was marketed. Therefore, when a breach occurs, it is up to the marketers of the company to give their input on how best to serve the consumers without losing brand reputation. Breaches will keep happening but knowing how to first make your customers feel secure that you are doing something seems to be the main priority (Whitler & Farris, 2017).
Companies That Faced Breaches
On March 31st, 2020, the hotel chain Marriott disclosed a security breach that impacted the data of more than 5.2 million hotel guests who used their company’s loyalty application (Gupta, 2020). Hackers obtained login credentials of two accounts of Marriott employees who had access to customer information regarding the loyalty scheme of the hotel chain. They used the information to siphon off the data approximately a month before the breach was discovered. The data accessed in the breach involved personal details such as names, birthdates, telephone numbers, travel information, and loyalty program information. According to Marriot, hackers might have obtained credentials of their employees either by credential stuffing or phishing. Previously, the hotel giant announced a data breach in late 2018 in which up to 500 million guests were impacted.
Although Marriot faced a large-scale breach, they were able to repair its reputation by incentivizing loyalty, owning its mistakes, and taking a proactive approach to fixing its reputation (Wadsworth, 2019). There will always be a risk of a breach no matter the preparation, which is why companies should not only invest in cybersecurity but also in reputational protection.
In 2019, MGM Resorts suffered a massive data breach. The news of the breach incident started to circulate in February 2020 when hackers leaked the personal details of 10.6 million hotel guests for free download (Escobar, 2020). But in the later findings, the number increased by 14 times (nearly 142 million) than the number recorded in February 2020 (Escobar, 2020).
The personal information published on the hacking forum included the name, home address, phone number, email address, and DOB of guests. The leaked files of guests included Justin Bieber, Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey, and many major government agency officials.
According to an ad, the hacker was selling the details of 142,479,937 MGM hotel guests for a price of just over $2,900 on the dark web a weekend after (Escobar, 2020). Imagine the cost MGM had to pay and the PR nightmare they went through after this. We are taught to evaluate our property, but we can’t put a price on digital property or customer relationships.
Companies suffer immense financial losses when they experience a data or security breach (Gwebu et al., 2018). Data breaches not only cause distress between an organization and customers but also between the organization and its stakeholders (Gwebu et al., 2018). Extra money is spent to ensure that the breach is taken care of and never happens again and towards maintaining the negative image that has been set. This image also reflects badly towards the investors. The more information that is saved online the more likely it is for it to get hacked. However, when customers give their information to a business, they trust the company to safeguard it. When a breach occurs, companies should first inform the parties affected and take steps to fixing the problem to ensure minimal reputational damage. There will be negative consequences but nothing that can not be fixed with the proper strategies involved by cybersecurity teams and the marketing department.
Escobar, M. C. (2020). MGM Data Breach 14x Higher than Initially Thought. Hospitality Technology. https://hospitalitytech.com/mgm-data-breach-14x-higher-initially-thought#:%7E:text=In%20February%202020%2C%20HT%20reported,its%20cloud%20servers%20was%20hacked.
Gupta, D. (2020). Marriott Data Breach 2020: 5.2 Million Guest Records Were Stolen. Loginradius. https://www.loginradius.com/blog/identity/marriott-data-breach-2020/
Gwebu, K. L., Wang, J., & Wang, L. (2018). The role of corporate reputation and crisis response strategies in Data Breach Management. Journal of Management Information Systems, 35(2), 683–714. https://doi.org/10.1080/07421222.2018.1451962
How Data Breaches Happen. (2021). Kaspersky. https://www.kaspersky.com/resource-center/definitions/data-breach